The term “integrated science” is often used as a synonym for interdisciplinary and unified science, which may be applied generally to any curriculum effort in which two or more previously separated science subjects are combined. The effort may be characterized as a collaboration among, a blending with, or a fusion of a number of “subjects” traditionally taught separately. Thus, the meaning of integration in various types of integrated science is different. An integrated science course may be characterized by a focus on processes of scientific inquiry, or a wish to cater for the interests of pupils, or it may be a course structured around topics, themes, or problems that require a multidisciplinary approach.
With the increasing complexity of natural and social issues facing parks and protected areas throughout the world, it is important for managers to recognize the benefits of utilizing and employing interdisciplinary and integrated scientific approaches to solving resource management-related problems. Over the past several decades, the need for interdisciplinary research and integrated science has become more apparent. The reasons for this are varied, but several key factors can be identified; there is a rising need to solve some of the societal problems that are complex in nature. Examples of these problems might be “How can the National Park Service best adapt to global climate change” or, “How can the National Park Service maintain species diversity throughout all parks in the system?” The needs for addressing such complex questions and problems are not confined to a single management unit or to a single scientific discipline, and require approaches that transcend disciplinary boundaries and political borders. Also, the advancement of today’s new technologies, such as geographic information systems (GIS), enhanced computer memory, agent-based modeling, and adaptive management frameworks provides new capabilities for integrating information that has not previously existed